The private agencies are a superb source to be looked to for innovation, experimentation, and approaches not feasible for governments, rather than for duplication of government services. RECOMMENDATION EIGHT: THE NEED FOR RESEARCH To the student of population problems the need for further research is painfully obvious. Our study on the policy implications of rapid population growth has demonstrated this need to us with extraordinary clarity. It is the habit of scholars to call for more research, but the case for population research appears to us to be compelling for the people of the world. Therefore: First: We urge that governments, in both developed and developing countries, support research on reproductive physiology and methods of fertility control and on the economic, social, and health factors that determine fertility behavior. International cooperation in such research can contribute greatly to its effectiveness because the many types of research needed in different cultures, the interdisciplinary character of such research, and the numbers of institutions and people involved require global exchange of information and mutual assistance. Second: In addition to strengthening ongoing efforts, we propose that a number of international research centers on population problems be established and supported, at least in part, through intergovernmental technical assistance mechanisms. Third: We urge governments and private agencies to expand university research and teaching on the role of demographic factors in economic and social change. Problems concerning which more information and understanding are needed include the consequences of population change for economic and social development; urbanization and internal migration; labor policy and industrialization; agriculture and nutrition; health and welfare; education and communications; natural resources and environmental quality; and conflicts among ethnic, linguistic, and other social groups. These recommendations and our comments are not designed to present a comprehensive solution to the world's population problems; they are simply our selection of the most useful options as of summer 1970. We have, as one result of this study, come to realize that comprehensive closure on most aspects of population is impossible simply because we do not know enough. This is our best estimate of the immediate needs in terms of both prompt action programs for the next few years and the research required to make future policies more effective through an expanded base of knowledge.